From Kevin McCauley:
The argument against calling addiction a disease centers on the nature of free will. This argument, which I will refer to as the Choice Argument, considers addiction to be a choice: the addict had the choice to start using drugs. Real diseases, on the other hand, are not choices: the diabetic did not have the choice to get diabetes. The Choice Argument posits that the addict can stop using drugs at any time if properly coerced.
As evidence, the Choice Argument offers this scenario: a syringe of drugs is placed in front of an intravenous drug addict and the offer is made to “Spike up!” When the addict picks up the needle and bares his arm, a gun is placed to his temple and the qualifier is added that if the addict injects the drug his brains will be blown out. Most addicts given this choice can summon the free will to choose not to use drugs. The Choice Argument claims this proves that addiction is not a disease. But in real diseases – diabetes, for instance- a gun to the head will not help because free will plays no part in the disease process. So the Choice Argument draws a distinction between behaviors – which are always choices – and diseases.
This is a powerful argument. It is also wrong.
While it is true that a gun to the head can get the addict to chose not to use drugs, the addict is still craving. The addict does not have the choice not to crave. If all you do is measure addiction by the behavior of the addict – using, not using – you miss the most important part of addiction: the patient’s suffering. The Choice Argument falls into the trap of Behavioral Solipsism.
Just as a defect in the bone can be a fracture and a defect in the pancreas can lead to diabetes, a defect in the brain leads to changes in behavior. In attempting to separate behaviors (which are always choices) from symptoms (the result of a disease process), the Choice Argument ignores almost all of the findings of neurology. Defects in the brain can cause brain processes to falter. Free will is not an all or nothing thing. It fluctuates under survival stress.
Hat tip: Matt Statman
- If it wasn’t rational, they wouldn’t be doing it (addictionandrecoverynews.wordpress.com)
- If it wasn’t rational, cont’d (addictionandrecoverynews.wordpress.com)
- “The Rational Choices of Crack Addicts” (madinamerica.com)