“Harms of Use”: A List of References

In creating a presentation on “Harms of Use”, examining problems specific to certain chemicals, and related to various contextual factors including:

  • non-prescription websites,
  • new levels of potency from synthetic derivatives,
  • recreational misuse of psychotropic medications without addiction potential based on novel preparation methods and routes of administration,
  • compounds taken in combination for synergistic effects,
  • availability of psychotropics from primary care providers,

I have prepared a list of references.  I am sharing this list in case some part of it might be helpful in some way.


Bachhuber, M. A., Saloner, B., Chinazo O., Cunningham, C. O., Barry, C. L.  (2014).  Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States: 1999-2010.  JAMA Internal Medicine.  174(10):1668-1673. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4005.

Bagra, I, Krishnan, V., Rao, R. & Agrawal, A.  (2018).  Does Cannabis Use Influence Opioid Outcomes and Quality of Life Among Buprenorphine Maintained  Patients? A Cross-sectional, Comparative Study.  Journal of Addiction Medicine.  12:315–320.

Barnett, M. L., Olenski, A. R. & Jena, A. B. (2017). Opioid-Prescribing Patterns of Emergency Physicians and Risk of Long-Term Use.  The New England Journal of Medicine.  376:663-73.  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsa1610524

Border, R., Johnson, E. C., Evans, L. M., Smolen, A., Berley, N. Sullivan, P. F. & Keller, M. C.  (2018).  No Support for Historical Candidate Gene or Candidate Gene-by-Interaction Hypotheses for Major Depression Across Multiple Large Samples.  American Journal of Psychiatry.  doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.18070881

Bouziane, C., Filatova, O. G., Schrantee, A., Caan, M. W. A., Frans M., Vos, F. M., & Reneman, L.  (2019).  White Matter by Diffusion MRI Following Methylphenidate Treatment: A randomized control trial in males with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Radiology.  293(1):186-192.  doi:10.1148/radiol.2019182528.

Busko, J.  (2018).  The Slippery Slope of ED Buprenorphine.  Emergency Medicine News.  40(12): 6-7.

Ciccarone, D (2019).  The Triple Wave Epidemic: Supply and demand drivers of the US opioid overdose crisis.  International Journal of Drug Policyhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.01.010

DeWall, C. N., Chester, D. S. & White, D. S. (2015).  Can Acetaminophen Reduce the Pain of Decision-Making?  Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 56:117–120.

DeWall, C. N., MacDonald, G. M., Webster, G. D., Masten, C. L., Baumeister, R. F., Powell, C., Combs, D., Schurtz, D. R., Stillman, T. F., Tice, D. M. & Eisenberger, N. I.   (2010).  Acetaminophen Reduces Social Pain : Behavioral and neural evidence. Psychological Science. 21(7):931-937.  DOI: 10.1177/0956797610374741

DiForti, M., Quattrone, D., Freeman, T. P., Tripoli, G., Gayer-Anderson, C., Quigley, H., Rodriguez, V., Jongsma, H. E., Ferraro, L., La Cascia, C., Barbera, D., Tarricone, I., Berardi, D., Szöke, A., Arango, C., Tortelli, A., Velthorst, E., Bernardo, M., Del-Ben, C. M., Menezes, P. R., Selten, J-P., Jones, P. B.,  Kirkbride, J. B., Rutten, B., de Haan, L., Sham, P. C., van Os, J., Lewis, C. M.,  Lynskey, M., Morgan, C., Murray, R. M., and the EU-GEI WP2 Group.  (2019).  The Contribution of Cannabis Use to Variation in the Incidence of Psychotic Disorder Across Europe (EU-GEI): A multicentre case-control study.  Lancet Psychiatry.  doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366 (19)30048-3.

D’Onofrio, G. D., Chawarski, M. C., O’Connor, P. G., Pantalon, M. V., Busch, S. H., Owens, P. H., Hawk, K., Bernstein, S. L. & Fiellin, D. A.  (2017).  Emergency Department-Initiated Buprenorphine for Opioid Dependence with Continuation in Primary Care: Outcomes during and after intervention.  Journal of General Internal Medicine.  32(6):660-666.

D’Onofrio, G. D., O’Connor, P. G., Pantalon, M. V, Chawarski, M. C., Busch, S. H., Owens, P. H., Bernstein, S. L. & Fiellin, D. A. (2015).  Emergency Department-Initiated Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment for Opioid Dependence:  A randomized clinical trial.  Journal of the American Medical Association.  313(16):1636-1644.

Drabiak, K.  (2019)  Expanding Medication Assisted Treatment is Not the Answer: Flaws in the substance abuse treatment paradigm.  DePaul Journal of Health Care Law.  21(1)1-67.

Durso1, G. R. O., Luttrell, A. & Way, B. M. (2015).  Over-the-Counter Relief From Pains and Pleasures Alike: Acetaminophen blunts evaluation sensitivity to both negative and positive stimuli. Psychological Science.  26(6):750–758. doi:10.1177/0956797615570366.

Evans, E. A. & Sullivan, M. A.  (2014).  Abuse and Misuse of Antidepressants.  Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation. 107-120.

Filbey, F. M., Aslan, S., Lu, H. & Peng, S-L. (2017).  Residual Effects of THC via Novel Measures of Brain Perfusion and Metabolism in a Large Group of Chronic Cannabis Users.  Neuropsychopharmacology.  doi:10.1038/npp.2017.44 1–8.

Gass, N., Becker, R., Reinwald, J., Cosa-Linan, A., Sack, M., Weber-Fahr1, W., Vollmayr, B. &  Sartorius, A. (2019) Differences Between Ketamine’s Short-Term and Long-Term Effects on Brain Circuitry in Depression.  Translational Psychiatry. 9:172. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0506-6

Goodwin, J. S., Kuo, Y-K., Brown, D., Juurlink, D. & Raji, M.  Association of Chronic Opioid Use With Presidential Voting Patterns in US Counties in 2016. (2018).  Journal of the American Medical Association.  doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.0450

Hadland, S. E., Krieger, M. S. & Marshall, B. D. L.  (2017).  Industry Payments to Physicians for Opioid Products, 2013-2015.  The American Journal of Public Health.  107(9): 1493-1495.

Hall, O. T., Hall, O. E., McGrath, R. P. & Haile, Z. T.  (2019).  Years of Life Lost due to Opioid Overdose in Ohio: Temporal and geographic patterns of excess mortality.  Journal of Addiction Medicine.  DOI:10.1097/ADM.0000000000000554.

Hartz , S. M., Oehlert, M.,  Horton, A.C., Grucza, R. A., Fisher, S. L., Culverhouse, R. C., Nelson, K. G., Sumerall, S. W., Neal, P. C., Regnier, P., Chen, G., Williams, A., Bhattarai, J., Evanoff, B. & Bierut, L. J. (2018).  Daily Drinking Is Associated with Increased Mortality  Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.  DOI: 10.1111/acer.13886, pp 1–10.

Hay, G. L., Baracz, S. J. Everett, N. A., Roberts, J., Costa, P. A., Arnold, J., McGregor, I. S. & Cornish, J. L.  (2018).  Cannabidiol Treatment Reduces the Motivation to Self-administer Methamphetamine and Methamphetamine-primed Relapse in Rats.  Journal of Psychopharmacology.  1–10.  DOI: 10.1177/0269881118799954

Holta, S. R., Donroea, J. H.,  Cavallob, D. A. & Tetraulta, J. M.  (2018).  Addressing Discordant Quantitative Urine Buprenorphine and Norbuprenorphine Levels: Case examples in opioid use disorder.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence 186:171–174. doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.12.040

Hurd, Y. L., Spriggs, S., Alishayev, J., Winkel, G., Gurgov, K., Kudrich, C, Oprescu, A. M.. & Salsitz, E. (2019).  Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.  American Journal of Psychiatry.  (doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.18101191)

Kuypers, K. P. C., Ng, L., Erritzoe, D., Knudsen, G. M., Nichols, C. D., Nichols, D. E., Pani, L., Soula, A. & Nutt, D. (2019).  Microdosing Psychedelics: More Questions Than Answers? An overview and suggestions for future research.  Journal of Psychopharmacology 1–19 DOI: 10.1177/0269881119857204.

Levin, F. R., Mariani, J. J., Specker, S., Mooney, M., Mahony, A., Brooks, D. J., Babb, D., Bai, Y., Eberly, L. E., Nunes, E. V. & Grabowski, J.  (2015).  Extended-Release Mixed Amphetamine Salts vs Placebo for Comorbid Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Cocaine Use Disorder: A randomized clinical trial.  JAMA Psychiatry. 72(6): 593–602. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.41.

Lewer, D., Tweede, E. J., Aldridge, R. W. & Morley, K. I.  (2019).  Causes of Hospital Admission and Mortality Among 6683 People Who Use Heroin: A cohort study comparing relative and absolute risks.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence 204: 107525.

Lintzeris, N., Bhardwaj, A. & Mills, L.  (2019). Nabiximols for the Treatment of Cannabis Dependence: A Randomized Clinical Trial JAMA Internal Medicine. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.1993

Ly, C., Greb, A. C., Cameron, L. P., Wong, J. M., Barragan, E. V., Wilson, P. C., Burbach, K. F., Zarandi, S. S., Sood, A.,  Paddy, M. R., Duim, W. C., Dennis, M. Y., McAllister, A. K., Ori-McKenney, K. M., Gray, J. A., & Olson, D. E.  (2018).  Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity.  Cell Reports.  23: 3170–3182.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.05.022

Maisel, N. C., Blodgett, J. C., Wilbourne, P. L., Humphreys, K. & Finney, J. W.  (2013).  Meta-analysis of Naltrexone and Acamprosate for Treating Alcohol Use Disorders: When are these medications most helpful?  Addiction.  108(2):275-293.

Mallik, A., Chanda, M. L. & Levitin, D. J.  (2017).  Anhedonia to Music and Mu-Opioids: Evidence from the administration of naltrexone.  Scientific Reports. 7, 41952; doi: 10.1038/srep41952.

Manthey, J., Shield, K. D., Rylett, M., Hasan, O. S. M., Probst, C. & Rehm, J.  (2019).  Global Alcohol Exposure Between 1990 and 2017 and Forecasts Until 2030: A modelling study.  The Lancet.  dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736 (18) 32744-2.

Maughan, B. C., Hershc, E. V., Shoferd, F. S., Wannerd, K. J., Archerd, E., Carrascoc, L. R. & Rhodesb, K. V.  (2016). Unused Opioid Analgesics and Drug Disposal Following Outpatient Dental Surgery: A randomized controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 168: 328–334.

McClure, F. L., Niles, J. K., Kaufman, H. W. & Gudin, J.  (2017).  Concurrent Use of Opioids and Benzodiazepines: Evaluation of Prescription Drug Monitoring by a United States Laboratory.  Journal of Addiction Medicine. 11:420–426. DOI: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000354 420-426.

Mithoefer, M.C., Wagner, M. T., Mithoefer, A. T., Jerome, L. & Doblin, R. (2010).  The Safety and Efficacy of +3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Assisted Psychotherapy in Subjects with Chronic, Treatment-Resistant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The first randomized controlled pilot study.  Journal of Psychopharmacology.  25(4) 439–452

Monte, A. A., Shelton, S.K., Mills, E, Saben, J., Hopkinson, A., Sonn, B., Devivo, M., Chang, T., Fox, J., Brevik, C., Williamson, K, & Abbott, D.  (2019).  Acute Illness Associated With Cannabis Use, by Route of Exposure:  An Observational Study.  Annals of Internal Medicine.  doi:10.7326/M18-2809.

Morin, J-F. G., Afzali, M. H., Bourque, J., Stewart, S. H., Séguin, J. R., O’Leary-Barrett, M. & Conrod, P. J.  (2018).  A Population-Based Analysis of the Relationship Between Substance Use and Adolescent Cognitive Development.  American Journal of Psychiatry. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.18020202.

Nutt, D., King, L. A., Saulsbury, W. & Blakemore, C. (2007). Development of a Rational Scale to Assess the Harm of Drugs of Potential Misuse. The Lancet. 369: 1047–53.

Proescholdbell, S. K., Cox, M. E. & Asbun, A.  (2017).  Death Rates from Unintentional and Undetermined Prescription Opioid Overdoses and Dispensing Rates of Controlled Prescription Opioid Analgesics – 2011-2015.  North Carolina Medical Journal. 78(2):142-143.

Randles, D., Heine, S. J. & Santos, N. (2013). The Common Pain of Surrealism and Death: Acetaminophen reduces compensatory affirmation following meaning threats. Psychological Science.  24(6) 966 –973.

Russo, E. B.  (2011). Taming THC: Potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects.  British Journal of Pharmacology.  163: 1344–1364.  DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x

Sattari, M., Sattari, A. & Kazory, A.  (2016).  Energy Drink Consumption and Cardiac Complications:  A case for caution.  Journal of Addiction Medicine.  10(4):280-282.  DOI: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000234.

Schifano, F. & Chiappini, S. (2018). Is There a Potential of Misuse for Venlafaxine and Bupropion?  Frontiers in Pharmacology. 9:239. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00239

Shover, C.L. Davis, C.S., Gordon, S. C. & Humphreys, K. (2019).  Association Between Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Overdose Mortality Has Reversed Over Time.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.  doi/10.1073/pnas.1903434116.

Slivicki, R. A., Xu, Z., Kulkarni, P. M., Pertwee, R. G., Mackie, K., Thakur, G. A. & Hohmann, A. G.  (2017).  Positive Allosteric Modulation of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Suppresses Pathological Pain Without Producing Tolerance or Dependence.  Biological Psychiatry. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.06.032

Smith, R. V., Havens, J. R. & Walsh, S. L.  (2016).  Gabapentin Misuse, Abuse and Diversion: A systematic review.  Addiction. 111: 1160–1174

Sun, E. C., Dixit, A., Humphreys, K., Darnall, B. D., Laurence C Baker, L. C. & Mackey, S.  (2017).  Association Between Concurrent Use of Prescription Opioids and Benzodiazepines and Overdose: Retrospective analysis.  The BMJ.  356:j760  http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j760

Tanner, C. M., Goldman, S. M., Ross, G. W. & Grate, S. J.  (2014).  The Disease Intersection of Susceptibility and Exposure: Chemical exposures and neurodegenerative disease risk.  Alzheimer’s & Dementia. 10: S213-S225.

Twardowski, M.A., Link, M. M., & Twardowski, N. M. (2019).  Effects of Cannabis Use on Sedation Requirements for Endoscopic Procedures.  Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 119(5):307-311.  doi:10.7556/jaoa.2019.052.

Volkow, N. D., Baler, R. D., Compton, W. M. & Weiss, S. R.  (2014).  Adverse Health Effects of Marijuana Use.  The New England Journal of Medicine.  370(23):2219-2227.

Volkow, N. D., Koob, G. F. & McLellan, A. T. (2016).  Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction.  The New England Journal of Medicine.  374(4):363-371.

White, W. L.  (2019).  A Lesson From Recent Vaping Deaths.  http://www.williamwhitepapers.com/

Wood, A. M., Kaptoge, S. & Butterworth, A., S. et. al. for the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration/EPIC-CVD/UK Biobank Alcohol Study Group (2018).  Risk Thresholds for Alcohol Consumption: Combined analysis of individual-participant data for 599,912 current drinkers in 83 prospective studies. The Lancet. 391:1513–23.

Yao, X. I., Ni, M. Y., Cheung, F., Wu, J. T., Schooling, C. M., Leung, G.M., & Pang, H. (2019).  Change In Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Quality Of Life: Evidence from  2 population-based cohorts.   Canadian Medical Association Journal. 191:E753-60. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.181583

Yovell, Y., Bar, G., Mashiah, M, Baruch, Y., Briskman, I., Asherov, J., Lotan, A., Rigbi, A. & Panksepp, J. (2016).  Ultra-Low-Dose Buprenorphine as a Time-Limited Treatment for Severe Suicidal Ideation: A randomized controlled trial.  American Journal of Psychiatry. 173:491–498. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.15040535

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